Diabetes

 

References

1 US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. Prevent diabetes problems: keep your teeth and gums health. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health, National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse; 2008. NIH Publication 08-4280.

2 American Diabetes Association. Smoking. Retrieved March 25, 2009 from http://www.diabetes.org/type-1-diabetes/smoking.jsp.

3 Persson, P-G., Carlsson, S., Svanstrom, L., Ostenson, C-G., Efendic, S., Grill, V. (2000). Cigarette smoking, oral moist snuff use and glucose intolerance. Journal of Internal Medicine: Volume 248.103-110.

4 Chuahirun, T, Khanna, A, Kimball, K, Wesson, D.E. (2003). Cigarette smoking and increased urine albumin excretion are interrelated predictors of nephropathy progression in type 2 diabetes. American Journal of Kidney Disorders, 41: 13-21.

5 American Diabetes Association. Smoking. Retrieved March 25, 2009 from http://www.diabetes.org/type-2-diabetes/foot-complications.jsp.

6 Paetkau, M., Boyd, T., Winship, B., & Grace, M. (1977). Cigarette smoking and diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes, 26(1), 46-49.

7 US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. Diabetic Neuropathies: The Nerve Damage of Diabetes. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Institutes of Health, National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse; 2009. NIH Publication 09-3185.

8 Mayo Clinic. Erectile dysfunction and diabetes: take control today. Retrieved March 25, 2009 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/erectile-dysfunction/DA00045.

9 BMJ-British Medical Journal (2006, April 17). New research shows second-hand smoke raises diabetes risk. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/04/060417105837.htm.

10 Your Total Health. (2007). Smoking and diabetes. Retrieved February 24, 2009 from http://yourtotalhealth.ivillage.com/smoking-diabetes.html.

11 Eliasson B. (2005) Worsening the blow: the effects of smoking on diabetes complications. Diabetes Voice. 50: 27–29.

12 American Cancer Association. Question about smoking, tobacco and health. Retrieved February 24, 2009 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_10_2x_Questions_About_Smok....

13 Tomar, S. L., Winn, D. M. (1999). Chewing tobacco use and dental caries among US men. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 130(11), 1601-1610.